Petrophysics: Theory and Practice of Measuring Reservoir Rock and Fluid Transport Properties

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Petrophysics is intrinsically bound to mineralogy and geology because the majority of the world's petroleum occurs in porous sedimentary rocks. The sedimentary rocks are composed of fragments of other rocks derived from mechanical and chemical deterioration of igneous, metamorphic, and other sedimentary rocks, which is constantly occurring. The particles of erosion are frequently transported to other locations by winds and surface streams and deposited to form new sedimentary rock structures. Petrophysical properties of the rocks depend largely on the depositional environmental conditions that controlled the mineral composition, grain size, orientation or packing, amount of cementation, and compaction.

The physical properties of rocks are the consequence of their mineral composition. Minerals are defined here as naturally occurring chemical elements or compounds formed as a result of inorganic processes. The chemical analysis of six sandstones by emission spectrography and X-ray dispersive scanning electron microscopy showed that the rocks are composed of just a few chemical elements.

Analysis of the rocks by emission spectroscopy yielded the matrix chemical composition since the rocks were fused with lithium to make all of the elements soluble in water, and then the total emission spectrograph was analyzed. The scanning electron microscope X-ray, however, could only analyze microscopic spots on the broken surface of the rocks.

The difference between the chemical analysis of the total sample and the spot surface analysis is significant for consideration of the rock—fluid interactions. The presence of the transition metals on the surface of the rocks induces preferential wetting of the surface by oil through Lewis acid—base type reactions between the polar organic compounds in crude oils and the transition metals exposed in the pores.

The high surface concentration of aluminum reported in Table 1. The list of elements that are the major constituents of sedimentary rocks Table 1. Although the crust appears to be very heterogeneous with respect to minerals and types of rocks, most of the rock-forming minerals are composed of silicon and oxygen together with aluminum and one or more of the other elements listed in Table 1.

The chemical compositions and quantitative descriptions of some minerals are listed in Tables 1. Some of the minerals are very complex and their chemical formulas differ in various publications; in such cases the most common formula reported in the list of references was selected. Igneous plutonic rocks are divided into three easily recognizable rocks, which are subdivided by the rate of cooling Figure 1. The granites are intrusive rocks that cooled slowly at high temperature below the surface, whereas gabbro is a rock resulting from more rapid low temperature cooling in the subsurface.

Diorite is a rock that cooled below the surface at a temperature intermediate between that of granite and gabbro. The minerals differentiate during the slow cooling, forming large recognizable, silica-rich crystals with a rough phaneritic texture. The second classification is extrusive volcanic rock that has undergone rapid cooling on or near the surface, forming silica-poor basaltic rocks. Contains information and calculations that the engineer or geologist must use in daily activities to find oil and devise a plan to get it out of the ground Filled with problems and solutions, perfect for use in undergraduate, graduate, or professional courses Covers real-life problems and cases for the practicing engineer.

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